Skin, being an organ of the body, is also sensitive to a range of diseases and disorders. If you notice something wrong with your skin you should ask your doctor for diagnosis and to be treated. If your beautician can’t detect the skin condition as a simple disturbance you need a medical advice. Beautician should gently suggest to patient proper measures which must be taken to prevent some more serious consequences.


Comedones (blackheads) are disorders of the sebaceous glands generally occurring fatty skin.
Photo by anna gutermuth
They are formed by adding of sebum in a hair follicle and it oxidizes out there and it turns black forming a kind of stopper. This stopper contains parasites and microbacili.

Comedones formation is due to lack of hygiene, inadequate nutrition and inadequate use of cosmetics.

Comedones may be removed under sterile conditions, considering your skin type. Before this operation the skin should be exposed to a steam bath with chamomile for the skin pores to dilate. Of course, your hands will be well disinfected and the index fingers will be wrapped in sterile bandage.

 After extraction, the skin will be disinfected and then it will clean with a toner.


Whiteheads (closed comedones) are disorders of sebaceous glands that arise from retention of sebum and are composed of fat, dead cells and bacteria. Appear as small dots, solid white on any part of the face, neck, shoulders, chest or back. They meet frequently to dry skin with fine texture.

Whiteheads can be removed by pricking them with a fine needle and then squeezed properly sterilized. It is recommended that this operation to be done by a beautician.


       Acne is a skin disorder that appears following a major complication, a chronic inflammation of the sebaceous gland by retention of secretions. The areas predisposed to acne are the face, back and chest also shoulders.
Photo by Saluda UdeA
        Acne appears first as blackheads. Around a comedone occurs an inflammatory reaction as a red bump which has in the middle a painful point with pus. Depending on the severity of this inflammation are different types of acne: simple acne and acne vulgaris. Before beginning any cosmetic treatment is absolutely necessary to be done for a medical examination for diagnosis.

        Various causes of acne are: hormonal disorders, inadequate diet (sauces, condiments, alcohol etc), gastrointestinal problems, nervous disorders, unprotected exposure to sunlight, used of improper cosmetics and genetic predisposition (to a lesser extent).

        Acne should receive special attention. It must be cleaned daily, very carefully, using the proper cosmetics. May be used a liquid or solid soap with a 5.5 pH value, a toner with the same pH level for skin protection and an antibacterial cream. Avoid the wiping face with towel whether it is very clean. Instead, it is recommended an easy removal of the skin with disposable wipes.


Seborrhea is a skin disorder caussed by abnormal functoioning of the sebaceous glands. It makes skin look shiny or oily. Because it has enlarged pores, the skin looks like the orange peel. Seborrheic skin is most predisposed to acne.

Seborrhea causes include: stress, hormones, diet high in fat and spices, improper care. The most prone areas to acne are: forehead, nose wings, chin cheekbones. Seborrhea may be extended on the scalp, causing dandruff.

Seborrhea suffocates the skin making deficient oxygenation and blood flow decreases. A shiny skin indicates the presence of seborrhea, and it should be cleaned thoroughly every morning and evening with proper cosmetic products.

Also, once a week a facial mask of natural ingredients like seasonal fruits, clay, bran, yeast, egg white, is recommended.

If you have seborrheic skin avoid the too degreasing lotions that can lead to hypersecretion of sebaceous glands and accelerating the skin aging.


Boil (furuncle) is a skin abscess that appear from inflammation of hair follicles by the action of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). Furuncles looks like a red and painful abscess occurred around a hair follicle and after a while formed a wad in the center. After breaking the plug, is eliminated beginning a viscous yellowish white liquid and then remains a little scar.

Boils may be single or multiple.

Repeated occurrence of furuncles is called furunculosis, a disease that arises from poor hygiene.

Boils generally occur in adolescents and young adults. Areas prone to boils are those that are exposed to friction or small traumas such as groin, thighs, buttocks, under the belt buckle etc.

Low immunity, diabetes, obesity, poor hygiene are the factors that predispose to Staphylococcus aureus and to formation of boils. Open wounds, ruptured cyst, eczema, injecting of drugs favor penetration of bacteria into the skin.

Simple boils can be treated at home as follows:

- Do not squeeze the boils because the bacteria can penetrate deeper, leading to complications.
- Apply warm compresses to the boil and keep them about 30 minutes. Do these three times a day. The heat and humidity will drain pus. The healing will take about a week. Cover the wound with a bandage that you change daily.
- Clean the area daily with antibacterial soap and warm water.
- It is forbidden to wear tight clothes over the area that is affected by boils.

Furunculosis can be treated with good effect using a ”dough" from two raw egg yolks, a tablespoon of honey, 1/2 teaspoon of salt and a little flour. . You will get a mix like wet clay. It will mold a cake that will apply to boil and will keep to it until his break due to natural antibiotic of egg.

If boils are painful and persistent and fever appears, consult your dermatologist. He will make an incision and drainage of boils.

Antibiotics will be administered when:

- furuncles are located around the nose, inside the nostrils or the ear. Do not squeeze boils in these areas because the infection can penetrate to the brain!

- furuncles are large and recurs

- furuncles do not heal after local treatment.


Warts are hyperkeratosis growths of the epidermis and they have contagious nature. Occuring of warts is due to a virus called Human Papilloma Virus (HPV).
Photo by Kai Hendry

They generally occurred in fingers and palms and they are usually skin-colored with a dark center. Occur more frequently in children and young adults. Warts may disappear in a few months or years. Being highly contagious, warts can be transmitted from swimming pools, manicure etc. Persons working with raw meat are highly exposed to infect with warts (butcher's warts).

Treatment of warts is done in several ways depending on their severity and their extent (salicylic acid, hypothermia, surgical, laser, etc.).


        Moles (nevus) are small skin tumors, usually benign, that occur at birth or during life.

Photo by SuperFantastic
         They are presented as different sizes, soft, brown, black or pink and sometimes even skin color. Sometimes moles have some black and thick hair.

        Occurs of a mole should not be worry you. If they become malignant is an exceptional case. In any case, you should observe if it changes its color to dark brown and that around them appears a reddish circle. If you notice these changes you must emergency present to dermatologist.


        Freckles (efelides) are pigmented spots of various sizes and brownish color. They are generally located in most exposed skin areas: face, neck, shoulders and back. They are usually hereditary and are due to a congenital disorder.
Photo by miss pupik
        Sunlight can increase the color of freckles and can facilitate their occurrence so the skin should be protected with sunscreen (SPF of at least 15) that protects the skin over 90%. Sunlight stimulates the dermis melanocytes to produce melanin (pigment) and when these are unevenly distributed and from place to place the freckles arise.
        Freckles occur primarily in the skin of blondes or redheads persons where the amount of melanin in the skin is less and unevenly distributed. If your skin is fair and thin you must use cosmetic products for protection.
        To mitigate freckles or pigmented spots it can be used as applications elder flowers infusions, lemon juice, fresh minced parsley leaves, yogurt and cucumbers or fresh strawberries mask. Also, a diet rich in vitamin C will make your skin more resistant to sunlight.


Couperose is a skin disorder that has a vascular origin (blood vessels repeatedly contract and dilate). It affects people with capillary fragility. Couperose locate the cheekbone, around the nose, forehead and chin and appears as a network of visible small blood vessels, giving reddish skin.

Couperose is usually hereditary and is triggered as a result of capillary dilation. It is usually located on the wings of the nose. If it extend to cheeks is recommended medical consultation. The mild forms of couperose can be treated with specific cosmetic products. People who suffer from couperose should avoid spicy foods, exciting beverages, strong sunlight or cold without protection and the excessive skin exfoliation.

You can apply a local compression with herbal infusion (chamomile or linden flowers). Avoid make-up removal with alcoholic lotions. Steam bath is not recommended.


Rosacea, also called Acne rosacea, is a skin disorder manifested by a dilation of blood vessels leading to a reddening of the nose, cheeks, chin and forehead. It is due to spicy food, alcohol, stress or exposure to extreme temperatures. In an aggravated form can evolve small rough reddish or black papules, which can sometimes contain pus. Generally occurs in mature age.

As the skin with couperose is sensitive, will be used soothing and moisturizing cosmetics.


          Cellulite is a skin condition that is due to overload the adipose cells of subcutaneous tissue with fat, glycogen, salt and water. It locates behind the knees, thighs and buttocks, arms, back, shoulder and abdomen and it can spread especially after a birth.

Photo by diongillard
         It looks like a glossy orange peel, with silky structure and uneven. Sometimes presents varicose veins or stretch marks. With time, cellulite can be accompanied by fatigue and even pain.
       The appearance of cellulite is due to poor diet, stress, water retention, chronic constipation, sedentary lifestyle, certain hormonal disorders or hepatic impairment (dysfunction of the ovaries and adrenal glands) and to genetic factors.

       Cellulite treatment should be started after medical consultation in order to detect any hormonal disorder.


Besides wrinkles are signs of the passage of time, they may be due to some factors that we have to consider if we want to delay their occurrence. Skin type is a determinant factor of the rate of skin wrinkling.

Photo by tess
Wrinkles appear earlier on dry skin because it lacks a layer of sebum to protect skin. With age, skin supporting tissues weaken and it loses its elasticity.

To late the appearance of wrinkles is necessary to avoid:

- The uncontrolled and repeated mimics that causes facial muscles to be contracted too often and in the same way. Facial muscles contraction and their return systematically to the initial, lead to the formation of deep wrinkles in the skin. These so-called "mimic muscles" provokes the expression wrinkles that appear on the forehead, corners of eyes, chin and nose. If you look closely at an early wrinkled face you can read some person's mental states.

- Inadequate care and used of cosmetic products that are unsuitable for the skin type. It is forbidden to use on dry skin the products for oily skin: soap, products with alcohol, hot water or other degreasing agents. It is also forbidden to use on oily skin the abuse of such degreasing agents to not force the sebaceous glands to restore.

- Too fast weakening. The fast removing of the fat that is a support for the skin, early wrinkles will inevitably appear.

- Excessive exposure to light and heat of the sun without protection lead to a dehydrated and rough skin.

- Unprotected skin exposure to wind, heat and sudden variations of temperature.

- Dental problems such as missing of teeth change the anatomy of the face, lips and cheeks.

- Messy lifestyle (excesses of tobacco, alcohol and coffee or sleepless nights) leads to the formation of dark circles and wrinkles on the eyelids.

- Air currents that cause dry skin.

Vitamins C and E may late the wrinkles occurrence.